Lower Secondary Chemistry



Diversity of Matter
  • Establish a link between the materials used in common items to their physical properties such as density and electrical conductivity.
  • Use appropriate apparatus to measure accurately length, volume and mass.
  • Distinguish among elements, compounds and mixtures based on its definition and properties and draw their atomic models.
  • Differentiate solute, solvent, solution from suspension.
  • Classify elements as metals and non-metals based on their physical properties.
  • Analyse the factors that affect the solubility and rate of dissolving of substances.
  • Discuss how the disposal of harmful substances can impact the environment negatively.


Separation Techniques
  • Master the following separation techniques: magnetic attraction, filtration, evaporation, distillation and paper chromatography.
  • Recognise which separation techniques to be appropriately used given the context of the question.
  • State real-life examples of the use of separation techniques and its importance.
Atoms, Molecules and Ions
  • Describe the structure of an atom and ions using the properties of sub-atomic particles.
  • State that atom of an element have a unique number of protons, hence the element can be determined with the use of periodic table.
  • Compare atom and molecules and identify them from given atomic models.
  • State the number and types of atoms in a compound.


Chemical Changes
  • Identify examples of chemical change such as combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and neutralisation which leads to formation of new products.
  • Observe that chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of atoms, which are not created or destroyed.
  • Use word equations to represent chemical reactions.
  • Forms chemical formulae of compounds and basic chemical equations.
  • Identify types of bonding and draw dot-and-cross diagrams.

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