Lower Secondary Science



Diversity of Matter
  • Establish a link between the materials used in common items to their physical properties such as density and electrical conductivity.
  • Use appropriate apparatus to measure accurately length, volume and mass.
  • Distinguish among elements, compounds and mixtures based on its definition and properties and draw their atomic models.
  • Differentiate solute, solvent, solution from suspension.
  • Classify elements as metals and non-metals based on their physical properties.
  • Analyse the factors that affect the solubility and rate of dissolving of substances.
  • Discuss how the disposal of harmful substances can impact the environment negatively.


Separation Techniques
  • Master the following separation techniques: magnetic attraction, filtration, evaporation, distillation and paper chromatography.
  • Recognise which separation techniques to be appropriately used given the context of the question.
  • State real-life examples of the use of separation techniques and its importance.
Atoms, Molecules and Ions
  • Describe the structure of an atom and ions using the properties of sub-atomic particles.
  • State that atom of an element have a unique number of protons, hence the element can be determined with the use of periodic table.
  • Compare atom and molecules and identify them from given atomic models.
  • State the number and types of atoms in a compound.


Chemical Changes
  • Identify examples of chemical change such as combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and neutralisation which leads to formation of new products.
  • Observe that chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of atoms, which are not created or destroyed.
  • Use word equations to represent chemical reactions.
  • Forms chemical formulae of compounds and basic chemical equations.
  • Identify types of bonding and draw dot-and-cross diagrams.


Living Things
  • Discuss the importance of biodiversity to maintain the balance of life.
  • Classify living things into major taxonomic groups.
  • Observe how other organisms may benefit or harm human.
  • Explain the impacts of human activities on other organisms.


  • Distinguish the parts of a typical animal and plant cell and recognise their functions.
  • Explain how specialised cells in multicellular organisms function.
  • Discuss the importance of the division of labour.


Transport Systems in Human and Plants
  • Identify the parts of human circulatory system and their respective functions.
  • Explain how important substances are transported in human and plant with the help of diffusion and osmosis.
  • Relate the use of diffusion and osmosis to other real-life situations.
Other Systems in Human
  • Discuss the importance of various systems in multicellular organisms.
  • Identify the major parts of a digestive systemand master their functions.
  • Explain the importance of enzymes in digestion.
  • Observe thatthe products of digestion are used for other processes like respiration.
  • Recognise that the sexual reproductive system facilitates heredity.
  • Relate the effect of hormones to puberty and state the physical changes that occur.
  • Describe the parts and functions of human male and female reproductive systems
  • Explain how fertilisation occurs.
  • Describe the menstrual cycle with reference to female reproductive parts.
  • Compare temporary and permanent birth control methods and state their importance in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Discuss the harmful effects of STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and AIDS.
  • Comprehend that some bacterial STIs can be cured by antibiotics, but not viral STIs.
  • Analyse the emotional and physical effects of abortion and pre-marital sex.


  • Describe ecosystem as the interactions between a community and its physical environment.
  • Comprehend how various physical factors affect the life of organisms.
  • Explain how structural or behavioural adaptation and changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms.
  • Discuss the interrelationship among different organisms in a community.
  • Recognise the significance of environmentalconservation.
  • Compare photosynthesis, respiration and breathing.
  • Relate respiration and photosynthesis to the flow of energy through food chains and food webs
  • Examine the importance of decomposers in recycling of nutrients in the environment.


Units and Measurement
  • Identify the base quantities and their SI units
  • Identify and use prefixes and learn how to convert between them
  • Learn how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by using metre rules, micrometer screw gauges and vernier calipers, along with how to account for zero errors


  • Identify different types of forces and their characteristics
  • Calculate weight and pressure to solve related problems


Turning Effect of Forces
  • Describe and calculate the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples
  • Apply the principle of moments to solve one pivot problems
  • Describe different types of levers and their applications


  • Define kinetic energy, potential energy (chemical, gravitational, elastic), light energy, thermal energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy state the principle of the conservation of energy and use it to solve related problems
  • Understand the concept of conservation of energy and its applications
  • Define and calculate work done using their formulas to solve related problems
  • Compare the use of non-renewable and renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric generation to generate electricity in terms of energy conversion efficiency, production costs and environmental impact


Kinetic Model of Matter
  • Understand the macroscopic properties of solids, liquids and gases
  • Describe the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules
  • Describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation
  • Explain the difference between boiling and evaporation
  • Describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids
  • Describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids
  • Explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation and how rate of energy transfer is affected by:
    (i) colour and texture of the surface
    (ii) surface temperature
    (iii) surface area
  • Apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications


  • Describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank
  • Define speed, frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude and wavefront
  • Recall and apply the relevant wave equations
  • Define transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each


  • Define and use the terms for reflection, such as normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection
  • Define law of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations
  • Define and use the terms for refraction, such as normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction


  • Describe the production of sound and characteristics of sound waves
  • Explain how speed of sound differs in gasses, liquids and solids
  • Describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation
  • Relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency
  • Describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances
  • Define ultrasound and their applications


  • Draw circuit diagrams with power sources, switches, lamps, resistors, fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells
  • State the relationships of current, electromotive force and potential difference in series and parallel circuits and use them to solve questions
  • Describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters
  • Use equations of electrical power and energy to solve related problems
  • Calculate the cost of using electrical appliances
  • State the hazards of using electricity
  • Explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and calculate fuse ratings
  • Explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation
  • State the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth
  • Describe the wiring in a mains plug
  • Explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

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