Establish a link between the materials used in common items to their physical properties such as density and electrical conductivity.
Use appropriate apparatus to measure accurately length, volume and mass.
Distinguish among elements, compounds and mixtures based on its definition and properties and draw their atomic models.
Differentiate solute, solvent, solution from suspension.
Classify elements as metals and non-metals based on their physical properties.
Analyse the factors that affect the solubility and rate of dissolving of substances.
Discuss how the disposal of harmful substances can impact the environment negatively.
Master the following separation techniques: magnetic attraction, filtration, evaporation, distillation and paper chromatography.
Recognise which separation techniques to be appropriately used given the context of the question.
State real-life examples of the use of separation techniques and its importance.
Atoms, Molecules and Ions
Describe the structure of an atom and ions using the properties of sub-atomic particles.
State that atom of an element have a unique number of protons, hence the element can be determined with the use of periodic table.
Compare atom and molecules and identify them from given atomic models.
State the number and types of atoms in a compound.
Identify examples of chemical change such as combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and neutralisation which leads to formation of new products.
Observe that chemical reactions involve a rearrangement of atoms, which are not created or destroyed.
Use word equations to represent chemical reactions.
Forms chemical formulae of compounds and basic chemical equations.
Identify types of bonding and draw dot-and-cross diagrams.
Discuss the importance of biodiversity to maintain the balance of life.
Classify living things into major taxonomic groups.
Observe how other organisms may benefit or harm human.
Explain the impacts of human activities on other organisms.
Distinguish the parts of a typical animal and plant cell and recognise their functions.
Explain how specialised cells in multicellular organisms function.
Discuss the importance of the division of labour.
Transport Systems in Human and Plants
Identify the parts of human circulatory system and their respective functions.
Explain how important substances are transported in human and plant with the help of diffusion and osmosis.
Relate the use of diffusion and osmosis to other real-life situations.
Other Systems in Human
Discuss the importance of various systems in multicellular organisms.
Identify the major parts of a digestive systemand master their functions.
Explain the importance of enzymes in digestion.
Observe thatthe products of digestion are used for other processes like respiration.
Recognise that the sexual reproductive system facilitates heredity.
Relate the effect of hormones to puberty and state the physical changes that occur.
Describe the parts and functions of human male and female reproductive systems
Explain how fertilisation occurs.
Describe the menstrual cycle with reference to female reproductive parts.
Compare temporary and permanent birth control methods and state their importance in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Discuss the harmful effects of STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and AIDS.
Comprehend that some bacterial STIs can be cured by antibiotics, but not viral STIs.
Analyse the emotional and physical effects of abortion and pre-marital sex.
Describe ecosystem as the interactions between a community and its physical environment.
Comprehend how various physical factors affect the life of organisms.
Explain how structural or behavioural adaptation and changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms.
Discuss the interrelationship among different organisms in a community.
Recognise the significance of environmentalconservation.
Compare photosynthesis, respiration and breathing.
Relate respiration and photosynthesis to the flow of energy through food chains and food webs
Examine the importance of decomposers in recycling of nutrients in the environment.
Units and Measurement
Identify the base quantities and their SI units
Identify and use prefixes and learn how to convert between them
Learn how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by using metre rules, micrometer screw gauges and vernier calipers, along with how to account for zero errors
Identify different types of forces and their characteristics
Calculate weight and pressure to solve related problems
Turning Effect of Forces
Describe and calculate the moment of a force in terms of its turning effect and relate this to everyday examples
Apply the principle of moments to solve one pivot problems
Describe different types of levers and their applications
Define kinetic energy, potential energy (chemical, gravitational, elastic), light energy, thermal energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy state the principle of the conservation of energy and use it to solve related problems
Understand the concept of conservation of energy and its applications
Define and calculate work done using their formulas to solve related problems
Compare the use of non-renewable and renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric generation to generate electricity in terms of energy conversion efficiency, production costs and environmental impact
Kinetic Model of Matter
Understand the macroscopic properties of solids, liquids and gases
Describe the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules
Describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation
Explain the difference between boiling and evaporation
Describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids
Describe, in terms of density changes, convection in fluids
Explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation and how rate of energy transfer is affected by:
(i) colour and texture of the surface
(ii) surface temperature
(iii) surface area
Apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications
Describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank
Define speed, frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude and wavefront
Recall and apply the relevant wave equations
Define transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each
Define and use the terms for reflection, such as normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection
Define law of reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and calculations
Define and use the terms for refraction, such as normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction
Describe the production of sound and characteristics of sound waves
Explain how speed of sound differs in gasses, liquids and solids
Describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make the necessary calculation
Relate loudness of a sound wave to its amplitude and pitch to its frequency
Describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances
Define ultrasound and their applications
Draw circuit diagrams with power sources, switches, lamps, resistors, fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells
State the relationships of current, electromotive force and potential difference in series and parallel circuits and use them to solve questions
Describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as electric kettles, ovens and heaters
Use equations of electrical power and energy to solve related problems
Calculate the cost of using electrical appliances
State the hazards of using electricity
Explain the use of fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and calculate fuse ratings
Explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation
State the meaning of the terms live, neutral and earth
Describe the wiring in a mains plug
Explain why switches, fuses, and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor