Lower Secondary Biology



Living Things
  • Discuss the importance of biodiversity to maintain the balance of life.
  • Classify living things into major taxonomic groups.
  • Observe how other organisms may benefit or harm human.
  • Explain the impacts of human activities on other organisms.


  • Distinguish the parts of a typical animal and plant cell and recognise their functions.
  • Explain how specialised cells in multicellular organisms function.
  • Discuss the importance of the division of labour.


Transport Systems in Human and Plants
  • Identify the parts of human circulatory system and their respective functions.
  • Explain how important substances are transported in human and plant with the help of diffusion and osmosis.
  • Relate the use of diffusion and osmosis to other real-life situations.
Other Systems in Human
  • Discuss the importance of various systems in multicellular organisms.
  • Identify the major parts of a digestive systemand master their functions.
  • Explain the importance of enzymes in digestion.
  • Observe thatthe products of digestion are used for other processes like respiration.
  • Recognise that the sexual reproductive system facilitates heredity.
  • Relate the effect of hormones to puberty and state the physical changes that occur.
  • Describe the parts and functions of human male and female reproductive systems
  • Explain how fertilisation occurs.
  • Describe the menstrual cycle with reference to female reproductive parts.
  • Compare temporary and permanent birth control methods and state their importance in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Discuss the harmful effects of STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and AIDS.
  • Comprehend that some bacterial STIs can be cured by antibiotics, but not viral STIs.
  • Analyse the emotional and physical effects of abortion and pre-marital sex.


  • Describe ecosystem as the interactions between a community and its physical environment.
  • Comprehend how various physical factors affect the life of organisms.
  • Explain how structural or behavioural adaptation and changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms.
  • Discuss the interrelationship among different organisms in a community.
  • Recognise the significance of environmentalconservation.
  • Compare photosynthesis, respiration and breathing.
  • Relate respiration and photosynthesis to the flow of energy through food chains and food webs
  • Examine the importance of decomposers in recycling of nutrients in the environment.

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