## 28 Apr P4 Math Core Topic – Fraction

__FRACTIONS__

__Introduction__

Fractions is a widely utilised concept in mathematics, science, engineering and many other fields. From sharing a cake during a party and learning cooking recipes to the calculation of probabilities, fractions are very useful when accurate measurements are required. It is therefore vitally important that students master the concept of fractions in primary 4 so as to apply the knowledge both within classroom settings and in real life.

Having a strong grasp on the topic of fraction will pave the way to excel in the topics of percentage and ratio in primary 5 and 6. The following examples are common questions of fractions in primary 4 that are is unique in a way that it can give quick and precise comparisons:

__Example 1__

In 2007, Singapore threw away , as much rubbish as in 2006. Given that 861 tons of rubbish was thrown away in 2007, how much rubbish was thrown away in 2006?

The first sentence of the question tells the student that the amount of rubbish thrown in 2007 is of the amount of rubbish thrown in 2006. This also means that 7 units of rubbish was thrown in 2007 as compared to the 8 units of rubbish thrown away in 2006:

From the 2^{nd} sentence of the question, it is given that 861 tons of rubbish was thrown away in 2007. By relating the 7 units of rubbish thrown away in 2007 to the 861 tons of rubbish, we can then find the amount of rubbish thrown away in 1 unit:

Since the amount of rubbish thrown in 2006 was 8 units, we can now find the amount of rubbish thrown in 2006:

Therefore, the amount of rubbish thrown in 2006 was 984 tons.

__Example 2__

A basket contains 973 sweets, candies and chocolates. of these are chocolates. There are as many sweets as candies. How many candies are there?

The first sentence of the question tells the student that there is a basket containing a total of 973 sweets, candies and chocolates. Since the basket contains the total number, we can also call this total number “1 whole”.

From the 2^{nd} sentence, of this total number are chocolates. This also means that by splitting the total 1 whole into 7 equal units, there is 1 unit of chocolates. Taking 1 whole as a fraction of , we can then find the fraction that are sweets and candies combined:

By relating to the total number of 973 sweets, candies and chocolates, we can then find the number of sweets and candies combined:

The 3^{rd} sentence tells the student that there are as many sweets as candies, which means that there is 1 unit of candies as compared to the 2 units of sweets. By taking the sweets and candies to have a total of 3 units, we can find the number of candies:

there are as many sweets as candies

Therefore, there are 556 candies.

__The Challenge__

The challenge for the students in example 2 is when to use fraction to represent a value and when to use units to represent a value. Without a clear understanding on the proper usage of fraction and units to represent a value, students can get confused and lost when they are solving fraction questions especially problem sums.

__What can Einstein do?__

Here at Einstein, we provide a step-by-step guide for primary 4 Math and break down the Math questions especially problem sums into simpler and smaller parts for better absorption and understanding. We believe that every student has the potential to excel and we are dedicated to nurturing every student by catering to each student’s needs and learning capabilities. Book a **free trial lesson** now to experience how we can help your child to achieve more in Math!